MISCELLENEOUS FOREIGN TERMS
Every day in the course of my work, I come across non-English terms and expressions. For my own benefit, and perhaps to save others unnecessary work, I henceforth (when time permits) list some of these terms here. I am providing the HTML codes for the words, which is my main purpose, so they can be cut and pasted. This document is not completely reliable for dictionary purposes. I found many of the words juxtaposed with other terms during my work, and the exact meanings are not always clear. I have not been able to verify some of them, but verify when I have the time and opportunity.
LOGIC, MATHEMATICS, SYMBOLS
- ∃ (Logic)—exists— HTML; ∃ or ∃
- ∄ (Logic)—not exist (apparent meaning). HTML: ∄
- ≽ (Logic, Math)—greater or equal. HTML: ≽
- ⊦ (Logic)—sequence? (Symbol used by Gentzen). HTML: ⊦
- hadith (Arab.) or hadis, ḥadīṯ [html: ḥadīṯ—literally, a story. Stories of Mohammed, and his sayings, apart from the Koran, that are the basis of Islamic tradition.
- ḥadīṯ qudsī (Arab.).—
—words said by Allah and the hadiths taken from them, which form a separate book. According to the Sunnis. HTML: ḥadīṯ qudsī
- isnād (Arab.)—chain of tradition of a hadith.
- khabar (Arab.)—news, information
- matn (Arab.)—text of the report (in a hadith)
- muḥadiṯ (Arab.)—traditionalist(s). HTML: muḥadiṯ
- sahāba (Arab).—companions (of Mohammed).
- sunnah (Arab.)—custom.
- tawakkul (Arab.)—trust in the Lord, faith in Allah
MESOPOTAMIAN LANGUAGES (and other mid-east languages)
me (Sumerian?)—wisdom, general laws of wisdom
amesha spenta (Avestan)—beneficent immortal, one of six angelic beings who governed creation.
maat (Egypt.)—wisdom, creative force, order, truth.
- ecdysiast (English)—strip tease artist, peeler. (I think a writer called Mencken made this word up).
- iatrosophist (English, from Greek)—one engaged in the theory and philosophy of medicine.
- à rebours (French)—against the grain, the wrong way, contrary to.
- aliénation (French)—alienation (who would have thought that’s what it means?)
- l’ordre de la factivité (French)—the order of making, the realm of art (Gilson)
- aggadah (Hebrew)—form of midrash from Palestinian Judaism covering explanations of the Old Testament not connected with rabbinic halakha, applied to actual situations.
- bet ha-midrash (Hebrew)—house of study
- bosh (Hebrew)—lost of respect with God and with people caused by breaking God’s commands, and as an expression of God’s judgement and his punishment.
- chayot (Hebrew)—living creatures.
- ein sof (Hebrew)—infinity
- haggadah (Hebrew)—see “aggadah”
- hakkatub (Hebrew)—the written text (of Sacred Scripture).
- Halakha (Hebrew)—the body of Jewish law, including biblical, rabbinic, and traditions. (from khalak—to go, to walk, to behave, to live; khalakha—way, conduct, norm, law).
- hitbolelut (Hebrew)—assimilation
- hokmah (Hebrew)—wisdom
- kashrut (Hebrew)—kosher
- maskilim (Hebrew)—enlightened ones, those engaged in secular scholarship.
- Megalle ‘amuqqot (Hebrew)—revealer of profundities, a device invented by Gersonides, called Jacob&rsqul;s staff (Bacullus Iacobi) for measuring the positions of stars.
- Midrash (Hebrew)—homiletic method of exegesis of biblical texts (from “to investigate, to study”).
- Milhamôt Adonia (or Milhamot Ha-Shem) (Hebrew)—the War(s) of the Lord (title of a work by Gersonides).
- Mishna (Hebrew)—from “to repeat&rquo;, an important work of rabbinic Judaism, showing application of the law and juridical thought.
- mitnagdim (Hebrew)—an anti-Hassidic group
- ophannim (Hebrew)—wheels, cycles, ways
- Sefer ha-Heqqesh ha-yashar (Hebrew)—the book of the correct syllogism (title of a book by Gersonides)
- targum (Hebrew)—lit. translation, interpretation; an Aramaic translation of the Hebrew bible.
- Torah she-be’al peh (Hebrew)—the oral, unwritten law.
- Tosefta (Heb.)—a secondarily collection of the law, from the same period as the Mishna.
- zohar (Hebrew)—splendor, brilliance.
- Candrajiwa Indonesia (Javanese)—Spiritual life of Indonesia (title of work by Hardjoprakoso).
- iẖlas (Jav.? or Arab.? borrowing?)—sincerity (Sufi virtue). HTML: i&7830;las
- narimo (Jav.? perhaps borrowed from Arab.?)—consciousness of God (a Sufi virtue)
- panca sila (Jav., maybe from Skr.)—five virtues
- Pangestu (Jav.)—a mystical movement combining Javan and Sufi traditions.
- Raja Erutjahra (Jav. probably from Skr.)—true king
- Ratu Adil (Jav.)—Just King (messianic figure in Javanese folklore)
- rila (Jav.)—openness to the divinity of Suksma kawekas
- Ruh suci (Jav. or Skr. or Arab.?)—holy spirit
- sabr (Jav.? or Arab.?)—patience (a Sufi virtue)
- sangkan paraning dumati (Javanese)—origin and destination of creatures
- Sarjana budi santosa (Jav.)—Joy of wisdom and social service (title of work by Hardjoprakoso)
- Suksma (Jav.?)—(individual) soul
- Suksma kawekas (Jav. or Skr.)—(final or ultimate soul)
- Suksma sejati (Jav. or Skr.)—real soul.
- tawakkul (Jav. borrowed from Arab.)—faith in Allah
- wangsit (Jav.)—divine inspiration
- autoctisi (Italian)—self-construction (neologism coined by Giovanni Gentile)
- cosa (Italian)—thing
- il pensato (Italian)—what is thought
- il pensiero pensante (Italian)—active thinking, the thinking thought
- pensare (Italian)—to think
- bonsŏng (Korean)—original nature (corresponds to Chinese “benxing). HTML: bonsŏng.
- ch’e-yong (Korean)—substance and function (neo-Confucian method)
- Chosŏn plyguo yushin non (Kor.)—On the rebirth/restoration of Korean Buddhism (title of a work by Han Yong’un).
- kijil ji sŏng (Korean)—physical nature (corresponds to Chin. qizhi zhi xing). HTML: kihil ji s&#x14f;ng
- kyo (Kor.)—doctrine
- nim (Kor.)—he; beloved female (an ambiguous term)
- Nim-ŭi chi’immuk (Kor.)—his silence, the silence of the beloved woman (title of a collection of verse by Han Yong’un).
- shim (Korean)—heart-mind, corresponding to Chinese xin.
- Shin’gan-hoe (Kor.)—Society of New Korea
- son (Kor.)—meditation
- songjil (Kor.)—inner nature
- yi (Korean)—principle, form, idea, corresponding to Chinese “li”.
- istina (Russian)—truth
- vierit (Russian)—to believe
- yurodivi (Russian)—holy madmen, who are ascetic and see the future.